As a society, we are overstimulated by sensory and information overload. Our attention is captured by our mobile devices, the Internet and social media, and we are bombarded with overwhelming choices of what to read, listen to or watch. Many of us feel overscheduled, overburdened and overloaded with obligations (there's never enough time). Do we even know how to just relax and be still any more? For individuals diagnosed with the neurobiological condition of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the brain is always go-go-going and the body is rarely still. It's not that people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder don't relax, it's that they can't relax because information is processed differently in the prefrontal cortex of the brain. "People with ADHD tend to have lower levels of dopamine, a key chemical in the brain's reward center," explains Dr. Ryan Davison, a neuroscientist at the American Chemical Society. "This lack of dopamine means people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are constantly seeking stimulation." This constant stimulation can lead to frustration, mood swings, irritability, impulsive behavior and angry outbursts, with affect kids and adults alike. According to the American Psychiatric Association, about 9 percent of kids ages 9-17 and 2.5 percent of all adults experience symptoms and some disability from ADHD. For many individuals diagnosed with ADHD, Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) are two medications that offer symptom relief. Both medications are central nervous system stimulants, work in similar ways and have similar side effects, but for the purposes of this article, we're focusing on Adderall. How Does Adderall Affect the Brain? By increasing the activity levels of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, Adderall brings the brain down from a state of overstimulation to a state of baseline stimulation (where most people are to begin with). Essentially, the drug taps into the part of the brain responsible for controlling hyperactivity and impulses while lifting the fog of inattention and indecision. It helps those with an ADHD diagnosis slow down and be "still" in their own minds and bodies. This adjustment of dopamine levels in the brain brings greater clarity and focus, like seeing through prescription eyeglasses for the first time. In addition to treating ADHD, the only other FDA-approved use for Adderall is to treat narcolepsy, a sleep disorder with no known cure. Marked by excessive daytime sleepiness, the mixture of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine can help people diagnosed with narcolepsy feel alert and awake during the day, rather than out of it, sluggish and sleepy. Adderall is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the country, and also one of the most abused. Why Is Adderall Categorized as a Schedule II Controlled Substance? Many people wrongly assume the drug is safe because it is so widely prescribed by doctors. Yes, it's safe—if it's your prescription and you're using it as intended. When taking the medication outside of prescribed guidelines, the risk of developing a substance abuse problem is considerable. Adderall is an amphetamine, categorized by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as a Schedule II controlled substance, meaning that the risk of addiction or potential for abuse is high. Using prescription drugs for any nonmedical purpose is playing with fire. Taking this prescription drug without a prescription is illegal, and selling or distributing the substance is also illegal, carrying a minimum sentence of five years in prison. And taking Adderall when it's not medically needed, and the dosage isn't carefully monitored, has its own set of dangerous side effects, including addiction. Can I Become Addicted to Adderall? Yes. If you take any addictive substance often enough, your brain becomes accustomed to it over time. In fact, repeated doses of addictive substances can actually change the chemistry of your brain. A tolerance to the drug can form, and over time, individuals using the substance for nonmedicinal purposes need to take higher and/or more frequent doses to experience the desired effects. This is how the vicious cycle of substance abuse takes hold. "Misuse of prescription stimulants can lead to a substance use disorder (SUD), which takes the form of addiction in severe cases," according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. "An SUD develops when continued use of the drug causes issues, such as health problems and failure to meet responsibilities at work, school or home." Is It Possible to Overdose on Adderall? Overdose is unlikely but possible. Whether the orange or blue pills are swallowed, crushed and inhaled as powder, or "parachuted" (crushed, wrapped in toilet paper and eaten to avoid the taste), it's rare to overdose on Adderall—but it can and does happen. According to Healthline, the typical prescribed dosage range is from five to 60 milligrams per day. A lethal dose is 20 to 25 mg. per kilogram of weight. (To put that in perspective: a lethal dose for someone who weighs 154 pounds is about 1,400 mg., or 25 times higher than what would be recommended.) However, if you're using a prescription amphetamine recreationally while also taking other drugs or medications, it's possible to overdose on less than the average lethal dosage. These drugs can interact with blood pressure medications, antidepressants, cold or allergy medications, antacids and a host of other medications. Some people also experiment by mixing "addys" with alcohol, which can lead to alcohol poisoning, coma or a life-threatening overdose. Every year, thousands of young adults are sent to the ER for Adderall abuse. Signs of an Overdose Vomiting Rapid breathing Stomach pain Headaches Hallucinations Heart attack Fever of 106.7 or higher Tremors Death Can Adderall Help Me Get Better Grades? The tablets and capsules are widely known by high school and college students as "study buddies" or "smart drugs." They are commonly used to help students stay awake and pull all-nighters, cramming for tests or writing lengthy exam papers. Adderall can stay active in the bloodstream for four to six hours, and an extended-release capsule can last up to 12 hours. It's no surprise that, according to the National Center for Health Research, nearly 75 percent of prescription stimulant abuse happens on high school and college campuses. What is a surprise to some students, though, is that these so-called study drugs can actually undermine academic performance. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania found that people taking the drug didn’t perform better on cognitive function tests—they just thought they did. While it’s true that the task of studying might be more enjoyable when using Adderall (students feel more alert due to a spike in dopamine), nonmedical use of prescription stimulants does not improve academic performance. This evidence—along with the health risks—prompted the American Medical Association to warn that prescription stimulants shouldn't be used by healthy people seeking to improve studying as "they do not make people smarter." What Are Some Natural Ways to Regain Clarity and Focus? Instead of relying on a risky, potentially addictive "study drug" to help with concentration and mental focus, consider setting aside time each day—no distractions—to rest and reflect. Getting solid, uninterrupted sleep; eating a well-balanced diet; drinking enough water and exercising regularly all go a long way in helping to develop and regain focus. Other stress-reduction techniques include yoga, acupuncture, meditation (like the Headspace app), adopting a time-management method (such as the Pomodoro Technique), cognitive behavioral therapy and taking frequent breaks to reenergize. Can Adderall Help Me Lose Weight? While it can suppress appetite and speed up metabolism, taking Adderall for weight loss is ineffective and unsafe. You might experience initial reductions in appetite and weight using the drug, but these reductions aren't sustained over time. In fact, any weight you might lose in this way will quickly return once you stop taking the pills. Trying to lose weight on a so-called "speed diet" can also place a dangerous amount of stress on your heart. According to the health site Tonic, "The same molecules that rev up the sleepy parts of the brain also jumpstart the cardiovascular system—sometimes too much." In rare cases, individuals who take the drug at high doses without proper medical supervision can put themselves at increased risk of blood clots, stroke, seizures, heart attack and heart failure. What Are the Long-Term Effects and Symptoms of Adderall Abuse? The longer a person misuses the drug, the greater the risk of serious and long-term physical side effects, some permanent and irreversible. The following list includes the most significant immediate and long-term effects: Trouble falling asleep or staying asleep Feeling "spacey" Decreased appetite Dehydration Restlessness Dry mouth/unpleasant taste in the mouth Irregular/erratic heartbeat; increased heart rate Cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart) High blood pressure Blurred vision Hair loss (often coming out in clumps) Headaches Reduced circulation Dizziness Nausea Abdominal pain Addiction Lack of motivation Excessive fatigue Constipation or diarrhea Changes in libido Impotence Depression Aggression/hostility Suicidal thoughts Mood swings Anxiety/heightened social anxiety/feeling "jittery" Panic attacks Neurotoxicity: psychosis and schizophrenia-like symptoms of paranoid delusions and hallucinations (a persistent mental illness requiring a lifetime of treatment) Slowed speech/speaking in broken sentences Skin disorders Seizures Brain damage Kidney damage Sudden cardiac arrest If you have any of these symptoms, seek help or consult a doctor. Is There a Connection Between Personality Changes and Adderall Abuse? Long-term use of this central nervous stimulant can not only affect physical and mental health, but also personality. In comments posted on Chris Guillebeau's Writing with Adderall blog, here's how one former Adderall abuser described his drug-induced personality changes: "On Adderall, I didn't like the changes in my personality. I was really focused, yes. But I also lost my empathetic side. I lost my quirk. I was less tolerant. I found myself in more fights, extremely neurotic about having my own way—I think maybe I became more egocentric. I also didn't like the withdrawal. Pretty hard crashes. I noticed everything, I ascribed meaning to things that were trivial." Taking a dose that is too high can cause a "zombie effect," resulting in a flat affect or lack of expression. "I don't laugh or react to humor the same way," commented another long-term user. "I can zone things out, but I basically feel numb." How Can I Safely Withdraw from Adderall? Adderall withdrawal can cause an intense crash—especially for individuals who attempt to quit "cold turkey." There's a reason physicians begin with a low dosage when prescribing this central nervous system stimulant. A lower dosage is less likely to cause withdrawal symptoms when medication usage stops. In order to successfully manage Adderall withdrawal symptoms, medical detox is recommended. Withdrawal symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to months. The risk of relapse spikes during this time as the body attempts to rebalance. Even with a tapered withdrawal approach, serious symptoms and side effects can develop that should be monitored by a professional. Adderall Withdrawal Symptoms Low energy Inability to focus Dry mouth Tremors Body aches Mood swings Overwhelming anxiety/panic attacks Uncontrollable crying Short-term memory loss Intense cravings Depression It's not easy to admit you might have a substance abuse problem and ask for help. If you or a loved one is struggling with Adderall addiction and you're ready to get the help you need and deserve, Hazelden Betty Ford treatment centers are here for you.